We have worked in twenty-nine countries, in Africa: Ethiopia, Kenya, Sierra Leone, South Africa, Zambia and Nigeria.

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Electricity Market Design

While a power system physically balances, the flow from a party may not match its contractual rights/duties. Hence a central market process is needed to commercially balance.

We designed the Vietnamese market, the original Turkish market and have contributed to market design in Kosovo, Cyprus, the Ukraine and Nigeria.
In England and Wales were responsible for the transmission aspects of the Pool design and later contributed to NETA.


Where a power system has more than one commercial entity operating and interfacing on it, there is a need for a code of practice covering all technical interactions between them. This is normally required under the Act liberalising the power market.

We have advised on Grid Codes and the subsidiary Operating Procedures in eight countries with four in Africa.

This has covered drafting, forensic review with redrafting and the education of code managers and committees.


As well as physically interconnecting two countries the power systems are commercially interconnected as well.

We have advised on the commercial aspects of interconnection since drafting the revised Scotland-England trading agreement in 1976.

A notable trade we advised on and negotiated was for renewable generation from Electricité de France to Airtricity in the Republic of Ireland via England, Scotland and Northern Ireland.

Customer Competition

When power systems are liberalised a fundamental aspect it to remove/reduce monopolies. Hence over time customers become “Eligible” and can buy from generators directly.

This is not a trivial process; it requires extending the wholesale market (on the transmission system) down to retail markets on distribution systems with a massive increase in data management.

We have advised in Turkey, Republic of Ireland, Scotland and on gas in Britain.

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The H4TM4N Advantage

We were founder members of the European Guarantees of Origin system and have recently assisted in Nigeria becoming a registered International Renewable Energy Certification (I-REC) country.
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